On September 30, 2018, the deadline for negotiations between Canada and the United States, a preliminary agreement was reached between the two countries, thus obtaining the trilateral pact when the Trump administration submits the agreement to Congress. [150] The new name of the agreement was “United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement” (USMCA) and entered into force on July 1, 2020. [151] [152] A study published in the August 2008 issue of the American Journal of Agricultural Economics showed that NAFTA increased U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico and Canada, although most of the increase occurred a decade after its ratification. The study focused on the effects on trade flows of phase-in periods in regional trade agreements, including NAFTA. Most of the increase in members` agricultural trade, which has just been placed under the responsibility of the World Trade Organization, is due to very high trade barriers prior to NAFTA or other regional trade agreements. [91] One of the most affected agricultural sectors was the meat industry. Mexico became in 2004 the second largest importer of U.S. agricultural products by a small player in the U.S.

export market before 1994, and NAFTA may have been an important catalyst for this change. Free trade removed the barriers that hindered business between the two countries, allowing Mexico to offer a growing meat market to the United States and increase revenue and profits for the U.S. meat industry. At the same time, a significant increase in Mexico`s GDP per capita has significantly changed meat consumption patterns due to the increase in per capita meat consumption. [70] Mr. Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland announced that they were ready to join the agreement if it was in Canada`s interest. [143] Freeland returned prematurely from his European diplomatic trip and cancelled a planned visit to Ukraine to participate in nafta negotiations in Washington, D.C in late August. [144] According to an August 31 Canadian Press published in the Ottawa Citizen, the main topics discussed were supply management, Chapter 19, drugs, cultural exemption, sunset clause and de minimis thresholds. [140] Proponents supported NAFTA because it opened Mexican markets to U.S. companies like never before.

The Mexican market is growing rapidly, which promises more export opportunities, which, in turn, means more jobs. However, proponents have struggled to convince the American public that NAFTA will do more good than harm. Their main efforts have focused on convincing citizens that all consumers benefit from as wide a choice as possible of products at the lowest possible price, which means that consumers would be the biggest beneficiaries of the reduced trade barriers. The American Chamber of Commerce, which represents the interests of small businesses, has been one of the most active supporters of NAFTA and has organized the owners and employees of small and medium-sized businesses to support the agreement. This support was key to countering the efforts of the organized workforce to end the deal. The impetus for a North American free trade area began with the United States…